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L'Encéphale
Volume 38, n° 2
pages 156-163 (avril 2012)
Doi : 10.1016/j.encep.2011.01.009
Received : 4 August 2010 ;  accepted : 3 November 2010
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Psychopathologie des joueurs pathologiques en ligne : une étude préliminaire
Psychopathology in online pathological gamblers: A preliminary study
 

S. Barrault INDCROWN INDCROWN Mules Mules INDCROWN femme INDCROWN femme Mules femme qnYxZwnIU , I. Varescon
Laboratoire de psychopathologie et processus de santé (LPPS), institut universitaire de psychologie Paris Descartes (IUPDP), université Paris Descartes, 3, Grande-Rue, 91510 Lardy, France 

Auteur correspondant.
Résumé
L’objectif

L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer le niveau de dépression, les troubles de la personnalité et la cyberdépendance chez des joueurs pathologiques en ligne, en comparant les scores obtenus à ceux de joueurs pathologiques hors ligne.

Méthode

Le South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) a été utilisé pour évaluer l’intensité de la conduite du jeu, l’inventaire de Beck (BDI-13) pour évaluer la dépression, le Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ 4) pour les troubles de la personnalité et l’Internet Addiction Test (IAT) pour la cyberdépendance. Après avoir sollicité 85 participants en milieu écologique (lieux de jeu et forums Internet dédiés au poker), 30 joueurs pathologiques probables ont été inclus. Deux groupes ont été constitués. Les joueurs en ligne (n =15) ont été comparés aux joueurs hors ligne (n =15).

Résultats

Chez les joueurs en ligne, les troubles de la personnalité les plus représentés sont ceux du cluster  C et pour les joueurs hors ligne, ceux du cluster B. Les participants qui présentent des troubles de la personnalité sont généralement ceux qui ont des scores de jeu pathologique et de dépression plus élevés. Les résultats montrent une corrélation entre jeu pathologique, cyberdépendance et addiction au jeu sur Internet.

Conclusion

Cette étude préliminaire ouvre de nouvelles perspectives de questionnement et de recherche concernant, d’une part, les liens entre cyberdépendance et addiction au jeu sur Internet, et d’autre part, l’étude des différences entre les joueurs pathologiques en ligne et hors ligne.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Summary
Introduction

The rapidly expanding gambling offline and online have resulted in an increasing number of gamblers and the problem is likely to get worse in the future. However, online pathological gambling is a not well known. This rapidly developing modality of gambling, which requires to be studied, notably in its links with regular pathological gambling and Internet addiction. Depression and personality disorders are known to be often associated with pathological gambling. Personality disorders have an influence on pathological gambling, increasing its severity. Online gamblers seem to have a particular personality profile, compared to offline gamblers, and could present different personality disorders. Depression is a common comorbidity among online gamblers, as well as offline gamblers. Both types of gamblers have personality disorders, but the nature of these disorders differs: prevalency of personality disorders of cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders) is more important in offline gamblers, whereas cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders) is more present in online pathological gamblers. In France, few studies have specifically examined this subject.

Aims

The objective of the study is to evaluate scores on depression, personality disorders and internet addiction in online pathological gamblers.

Method

The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) is used to assess pathological gambling, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure depression, the Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ 4) to assess personality disorders and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) to assess internet addiction. Participants completed the self-report scales. Questionnaires were strictly confidential.

Population

The participants were recruited in gambling places (cafés) and Internet forums. Two groups of pathological gamblers were formed: online gamblers (N =15) and offline gamblers (N =15). Participants gave their informed consent. Participation was voluntary and anonymous and no payment was made.

Analysis of the data

The data collection was carried out with an anonymous file and then placed in a data bank. The statistical analysis was carried out using traditional techniques: averages, frequency, standard deviations. Differences among groups were tested using the t -test.

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The results showed that the majority of subjects met diagnostic criteria for at least one personality disorder. The majority of pathological online gamblers evidenced personality of cluster C grouping avoidant, dependant and obsessive-compulsive personalities. Personality disorders differ according to the type of gambling: offline gamblers have more disorders of cluster B, while online gamblers have more disorders of cluster C. Some personality disorders, in particular borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, are often associated with pathological gambling and seem to have an increasing effect on depression and pathological gambling’s intensity. Pathological gambling is strongly correlated to depression. Online pathological gambling, Internet addiction and offline pathological gambling appear to be strongly correlated.

Discussion/Conclusion

This study opens new perspectives of questioning and research, in particular for existing links between online and offline pathological gambling and internet addiction, and in existent differences between online and offline pathological gamblers. Online pathological gambling shares common characteristics with pathological gambling and Internet addiction, without being able to be assimilated with one or the other. This type of gambling, therefore, requires to be studied to adapt the actions of prevention and treatment intended for online pathological gamblers.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots clés : Jeu pathologique, Jeu en ligne, Dépression, Troubles de la personnalité, Cyberdépendance

Keywords : Pathological gambling, Online gambling, Depression, Personality disorders, Internet addiction


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